# Corporate Finance Summary

## Chapter 1

Looking at companies theoretically, there are two decisions businesses can make at any time:

**Financing Decision**: how to get starting money.**Investment Decision**: how to make more money with projects.

Definitions:

Payout Decision

Pay dividends or repurchase shares (to increase the price of the shares by reducing offer)

**Market Capitalization**

the value of a company that is traded on the stock market.

- Value comes mainly from the asset side of the company.
- Financing decision alone cannot cause success but can cause failure.

To create a company most of the time an amount of starting capital is needed. The decision of whether to take a loan or use equity is called the **capital structure**.

Each shareholder wants three things:

- to be as rich as possible
- to manage timing of his consumption plan by decinding whether to consume his wealth now or invest it to spend later.
- to manage the risk charcteristics of the consumption plan.

**Fisher separation theorem**

Financial managers and shareholders may have different goals, this means financial managers have to maximize the company’s value (all the time) while shareholder want to get as rich as possible either through dividends or selling the stock (at different times that suit them)

**Externalities**: when companies benefit society but do not feed back their profits.

- if investments give higher rate of return that when shareholders invest on their own in financial markets, then the shareholders are happy about the investment.
- Opportunity cost depends on external factors only, not internal factors (like interest on loans)
- possible projects within the company don’t determine the opportunity cost. project A ⇒ 15% rate of return; project B ⇒ 16% rate of return. Both projects should be done if the opportunity cost is 10%

## Chapter 2

**Present Value Formula**

**FV**: payoff**r**: discount rate (available on the market)**n**: number of years until you obtain FV

Suppose you want to start a University. You expect that it will payoff 1.000.000 euros in 5 years.

Given that the market rate is 12%. We can calculate the PV = 567 426.

⇒ this is the amount of money you need to invest in the stock market to get 1 000 000 euros after 5 years.

⇒ it is also the amount of money that the 1 000 000 is worth at this time.

⇒ up to this amount of money 567 426, it is reasonable to spend in the school to make 1 000 000

**Net Present Value**

**initial investment**: how much you invest today in the project to make the payoff in the future.**PV:**the present value.

The initial investment is how much you actually invested today into the project to make the 1 000 000 in the future.

→ this is simply a prediction by adding up all the costs for the investment. Example founding a university. The following costs are needed: `pens + papers + etc…`

#### Simple Interest Rate

#### Compound Interest Rate

**initial Investment**: how much money do you put in in the beginning.**r**: the compound interest rate**n**: number of years invested

#### Risk & Present Value

- Uncertain Cash Flows ⇒ calculations of NPV are wrong.
- Certain Cash Flows ⇒ e.g buying govmt securities

In risky Investments ⇒ uncertain cash flow.

- we call the future value the expected value, and we get the expected cash when discounting.
- r is the rate of return (you need to pick an r of an investment with similar risk.)

#### Rates of Return & Present Value

**Investment Rule:**accept investments having higher rate of return than the opprtunity cost.**net present value rule:**accept investments having positive net present value.

#### Calculate Present Value with Multiple Cash Flows

**Example:**

year 1: you rent a building

year 2: you rent the building (for a higher price)

year 3: you sell the building

#### Perpetuity

INFO

**Perpetuity** a perpetuity is an investment that pays the same cashflow every year, in perpetuity from year 1.

- Perpetuity Due: is when the perpetuity starts in year 0 (you need to pay it yourself)

- Delayed Perpetuity: when the perpetuity starts in year n instead of year 1.

#### Annuities

Annuity

Annuity is when you get a fixed payment each year for a defined amount of years.

To calculate an annuity you take the full perpetuity and you remove the delayed perpetuity to cancel out the payments that cease to happen in the annuity.

**Annuity Factor**

Is the factor which you can multiply the fixed payment of the annuity to get it’s present value.

**t**is the parameter that means how many years the annuity lasts.

**Annuity Due**

**Amortizing Loans**

Loans with fixed payments required. Therefore it is an annuity.

If you want to find the amount of each payment solve for C.

**Future Value of Annuity**

If you have the present value of annuity you can calculate the compound interest you get on this annuity by multiplying it by the interest rate to the power of the amount of years you are saving.

**Growing Perpetuities**

Constant growth DCF model, only used if g < r → g must approach r to be perpetual.

**Growing Annuities**

**Growing Annuity Due**

**How is interest Paid and Quoted**

**APR:**annual percentage rate.- tells how much interest is paid over the course of the year but not how often it is paid.

**EAR:**effective annualrate.- takes into account how often the APR is paid.

**Continuous Compounding**

→ no limit on how frequently interest could be paid.

→ payments spread evenly and continously over the year

→ interest can be continously compounded

from continously compounded ⇒ annually compounded:

from annually compounded ⇒ continously compounded:

**Example**

- Investing $1 at a continously compounded interest rate is:
- Present value of $1 at end of year t is

compounding interest rate =

interest rate is 11.63

Inflation Real Interset Rate

## Chapter 3

#### Bonds

- If cash is needed short term → take loan
- If cash is needed long term → issue/create bond

Interest rate of government bonds is benchmark.

- when government bonds go up and down → corporate rates follow proportionally

when interest rates **fall** → bond prices **rise**

- prices of long term bonds more sensitive than short term changes interest rates.

volatility = how fast something changes

duration of a bond is related to the bonds volatility.

**Bonds**

When you own bonds you get a fixed set of cash payoffs and in the end of the maturity you get the debt back.

- bondholder ⇒ get’s coupons : provided initial finance for company/government
- bond issuer ⇒ pays coupons : got financing from bondholders

- yield to maturity = market rate (the max rate of return you can get from another bond)
- The lower the yield to maturity the higher the price of the bond.

**Names of bonds:**

**discount bond**: bond is priced below face value. capital gain**sold at par**: ytm did not change (market does not fluctuate) the bond is sold at the face value.**premium bond:**bond is priced above face value. capital loss

YTM is used to calculate the current price of the bond.

Coupon Rate = YTM at time 0

But then the market fluctuates after time 0 and yield to maturity (interest rate on the market) can change but coupon rate for the bond keeps beign constant just as the same rate for which you sold the bond.

⇒ only general procedure for calculating YTM is trial and error. You guess at a figure and calculate the PV of the bond’s payment and try out discount rates.

Nominal Interest Rate ≠ real interest rate

- less than 10 year bonds ⇒ notes
- you can buy bonds from bond dealers
- treasury bills → matures in one year or less.
- semi annual coupons

Modified Duration: How price of bond will be affected if interest rate changes.

Bond duration affected by:

- yield to maturity
- maturity
- coupon rate

if coupon and yield are the same, duration increases with time left to maturity

→ relation of interest rates are the term structure.

spot rate: interest rate that is fixed today on a loan that is made today

**fisher’s theory**

a change in the expected inflation rate causes the same proportional change in the nominal interest rate, it has no effect no effect on the required real interest rate.

#### Spot rates

Law of one price

→ in a competitive market identical assets need to be sold for the same price

Interest rate risk

long duration bonds are more volatile than short duration bonds

5%

10%

Corporate Bonds

⇒ higher risk higher yield

junk bonds

risk of default + severity = credit risk

## Chapter 4

book value of asset = the cost of the asset

net book value (of an asset) = cost of asset - depreciation

accounts payable

accounts receivable

**book value of equity = what you have - what you owe**

book value of equity = (plant + machinery + …) - (total liabilities: outstanding bonds, bonds loans …)

Equity shareholders = Common shareholders + preferred shareholders

shareholder equity = company’s net worth ⇒ how much is paid to shareholders if everything is sold.

Book value per share is used to determine if a company’s stock is undervalued if all assets were sold, dividends paid and all other liabilities → what is the value of the share.

Price-To-Book Ratio:

→ stock is x times the book value.

EV: enterprise value = total value of a company → market cap + debt

Two approaches for valuing stocks:

- valuation by comparables
- identify comparables
- how much investors in comparables pay per dollar of earnings /book value
- what would business be worth if traded at comparables price earnings (P/E=P/ESP) or (P/B)
- imagine you are an investor and need to compare companies A and B stocks

- forecast and discount business dividends or future cash flows

Expected Return =

Price

Future value of stocks P1

## Chapter 5

- NPV is the difference between project value and cost.
- companies should take positive NPV projects and reject negative NPV projects.

🏄🏼♂️ **NPV Process**

- Estimate Cashflow of project
- Find the appropriate r (discount rate)
- Discount the cashflow using r
- Calculate NPV by subtracting the investment**

**Alternative Investment Criterion to NPV:**

- IRR
- payback
- book rate of return
- profitability index

**Advantages of NPV:**

- The NPV offers clear benchmark: positive NPV = accept, negative NPV = reject
- NPV depends on all the forecast cashflows from the project
- NPV recognizes:
*dollar today worth more than dollar tomorrow* - NPV depends only on the forecast cashflows of a project
- You can add up NPV: NPV(A+B) = NPV(A) + NPV(B)

#### Payback Rule

We spend 300 a year, at the laundromat, If we bought a washing machine for 800 it would pay for itself within three years. ⇒ payback rule.

⏳ **Payback Period**

A project’s payback period is found by counting the number of years it takes before the cumulative cash flow equals the initial investment.

**Payout Rule states that a project should be accepted if it is less than some specified cutoff period.**

Can give misleading answers because:

- ignores cash flows after the cutoff date
- the payback rule gives equal weight to all cash flows
- the choice if a cutoff period is arbitrary

#### Accounting Rate of Return

Net present value depends only on the project’s cash flow and the opportunity cost of capital.

But when companies report to shareholders, they show cashflows and accounting profit and assets. That is the profits and assets that are carried on the firm’s books.

Is unreliable because:

- accounting return ignores the time value of money
- there is no clear benchmark (managers sometimes compare the profitability to the company’s profitability as a whole)

#### Internal rate of Return Rule

Alternative NPV formula as rate of return:

- where
is return of the project is the opportunity cost

**if equals then NPV = 0**

INFO

♻️ **Internal Rate of Return** The discount rate that gives a zero NPV for a given project.

**Calculating IRR**

Equation to be solved:

The process of calculating IRR involves trial and error.

for a project with cashflows: C0: -4000 ⇒ C1: +2000 ⇒ C2: +4000

IRR = 0 ⇒ +$2000

IRR = 0.5 ⇒ -$559

correct: IRR = 0.2808 ⇒ $0

📐 **Internal Rate of Return Rule**

if IRR is greater than Opportunity Cost the project has a positive NPV, if IRR is equal to opportunity cost the project has an NPV of 0 if IRR is lower than the Opportunity Cost the project has a negative NPV

**Take projects with IRR greater than Opportunity Cost**

this is helpful because sometimes we don’t know the cost of capital exactly but we can know roughly if it’s greater or lower than the IRR. for example we know that the opportunity cost is less than 28% but we don’t know exactly if it is 12% or 13% so we cannot calculate NPV like normally.

#### IRR Pitfalls

**Lending or Borrowing**

Project | c0 | c1 | IRR | NPV at 10% |
---|---|---|---|---|

A | -1000 | +1500 | 50% | +365 |

B | +1000 | -1500 | 50% | -364 |

Project A is lending ⇒ high IRR is good.

Project B is borrowing ⇒ high IRR is bad.

- IRR does not work when NPVs don’t decline as discount rate increases
- basically this means that you have negative return on a project.

**Solution ⇒ use NPV**

**Multiple Rates of Return**

**Projects can have two or more rates of return.**

⇒ Two Discount rates make NPV = 0

Two discount rates make NPV = 0

It is not clear what IRR we should compare to the opportunity cost of capital.

As the discount rate increases IRR first rises and then falls (because a change from positive cashflow to negative cashflow)

**Solution ⇒ use NPV**

**Mutually Exclusive Projects**

Firms often have to choose an alternative way of doing the same job or using the same facility.

⇒ if you do project A you cannot do B

Project | C0 | C1 | IRR | NPV at 10% |
---|---|---|---|---|

D | -10000 | +20000 | 100 | +8182 |

E | -20000 | 35000 | 75 | +11818 |

IRR does not take into account the project’s scale.

**solution ⇒ use incremental flows**

🔴 you need to take the greater cashflow - lower cashflow project

Cashflow 0 of E - Cashflow 0 of D = -20000 - (-10000) = -10000

Cashflow 1 of E - Cashflow 1 of D = 35000 - 20000 = 15000

recalculate IRR = 50%

IRR is greater than the opportunity cost of capital so you should take project E.

**More than one Opportunity cost of capital**

We assumed that the opportunity cost of capital is the same for C1, C2 …

but there can be different costs of capital for each cash flow.

#### Choosing Capital Investments with limited resources

- companies do not have unlimited money
- we need to choose projects that provide the best bang for your buck
- the projects that offer the highest net present value per dollar of investment.

Project | Investment | NPV | Profitability Index |
---|---|---|---|

A | 8 | 18 | 2.3 |

B | 5 | 16 | 3.2 |

C | 5 | 12 | 2.4 |

- All projects are attractive because they have postive NPV
- if you are limited to 10 budget
- choose BC and reject A: because together higher NPV and profitability index.

- if you have only 9 budget
- choose A because higest NPV

**capital rationing in practice**

- soft rationing
- no shortcoming in the financial markets
- limit adopted by managers to control expenditures
- used to deal with biased forecasts from sub-managers
- NPV can still be used to choose projects.

- hard rationing
- projects with significant NPV’s are passed up ⇒ firm should raise more money
- if the company cannot raise capital then it has hard rationing.
- NPV can still be used

## Chapter 7

**Treasury Bills**

U.S government debt securities maturing in less than one year.

**Levels of Risk:**

- Treasury Bills (lowest)
- Treasury Bonds (middle)
- Stocks (high ☠️)

**Risk Premium**

Higher rate of return you can expect to make from riskier assets such as stocks instead of risk free assets.

**Risk Free Interest Rate**

**S&P 500**

List of top 500 stock market companies.

The interest rate of government bonds (Treasury Bills - short term) is the risk free rate. A government never stops working, if you have a debt as a government you will not fail to pay it most likely, that’s why it is assigned as risk free.

### Predicting Opportunity Cost

**Method 1**

- calculate the average return of stock market (add up all returns of S&P 500 and average).

**Method 2**

- look at current return of treasury bills
`(rf = 2%)`

- calculate average risk premium of stock market on historical data.
- We get
`rs`

which is the return on stock market which is the opportunity cost predicted.

**How to measure risk.**

- discount rate for safe project = risk free interest rate.
- rate of projects as risky as market = expected future return on market.

#### Variance and Standard Deviation

Normal Distribution. (of returns)

standard deviation = risk

mu = expected = how high is the average return.

Population:

Sample:

mu = (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 +6) / 6 = 3.5

sigma = (1 - 3.5)^2 + (2-3.5)^2 + (3-3.5)^2 + (4-3.5)^2 + (5-3.5)^2 + (6-3.5)^2 / 6 = 1.71

#### How diversification reduces risk

We can calculate our measures of risk well for individual securities. Every stock is more risky than it’s domestic market index.

**Market Portfolio**

The market portfolio is made out of individual stocks, average risk of market portfolio does not reflect the risk of individual stocks together.

The market portfolio is made out of all stocks in the economy where the weights correspond to the fraction of the overall market. For example if Apple comprises `3%`

of the value of all traded stocks in the US then Apple will be `3%`

of the market portfolio.

The standard deviation of your portfolio will generally not be a weighted average of standard deviations of individual securities → diversification reduces risk.

- two standard deviations define the risk of each stock in isolation
- covariance between stock 1 and 2 is the risk of stock 1 and 2.
- x is the investment

Correlation:

- positive correlation coefficient max +1, if A goes up B goes up proportionally.
- negative correlation coefficient max -1, if A goes up B goes down proportionally.
- correlation 0, returns on stock are fully unrelated.

**Portfolio Risk if correlation = +1**

Risk / Diversifiable Risk**

Specific risk affects only one company or companies in a single industry. Example: A pilot strike would hurt Southwest but not Amazon → Investors solve this risk by diversifying into unrelated companies.

**Systematic Risk**

Risks shared by almost all businesses. Example: collapse in economy → you cannot diversify it away.

#### Limits of diversification:

When there are just two securities → equal number of variance and covariance.

Many securities → number of covariance becomes larger than variance.

Well diversified portfolios reflects mainly covariances.

- After about 20 or 30 companies you have maxed out the benefits of diversification.

#### Systematic Risk Is Market Risk

Investors do not have to compute market risk since all investors are given the same market info. Market Portfolio → its volatility and returns are known. Investors do not hold individual stocks → they hold portfolios.

⇒ systematic risk shared with rest of portfolio.

Curved blue line shows combinations of expected return that could achieve by different pairings of two stocks called the "investment opportunity set".

- the red dotted line: -1 negative correlation
- golden line: +1 correlation → no gain from diversification

Calculate standard deviation (total risk) and get amount of return.

Each dot marks combination and risk of return.

#### Calculating the efficient market frontier: Markowitz

**Efficient Portfolios**

Efficient portfolios are portfolios that have: High expected return, low standard deviation.

- Red curve = efficient frontier → narrow efficient choice of all combinations.

**Fisher Separation Theorem**

Separate investment decision from shareholder preferences. If Investors use borrowing and lending to satisfy their individual preferences, they’ll agree on how to measure systematic risk.

#### Portfolio Choice Borrowing and Lending

To Decrease your Risk but decrease return:

**lend**money by buying bonds (treasury bills) you will receive the risk-free rate.- Invest the rest in a risky asset (stock)

To Increase your Risk and increase return:

**borrow**money from a lender.- Invest initial money + borrowed money into the stock.

The slope of the line between the risk free rate and a portfolio is known as the sharpe ratio.

- you want a steep line
- you want highest sharpe ratio.

the **lending borrowing line** opens up new portfolio choices.

You can draw a line that passes through portfolio straight line between the risk free rate and any portfolio on the efficient frontier of stocks.

The last steepest possible line is the tangent which touches the *tangency portfolio* **T**

The tangency portfolio is the one everyone will want to take, but on the tangent of T every investor chooses it’s preference of risk and return.

### Measuring Investment Manager Performance

- The sharpe ratio is a way to measure the risk adjusted returns which is a more accurate measure of skill rather than the raw return.

- The straight line through T is called the
**Capital Market Line**

**Two Fund Separation Theorem**

investor job:

- select best portfolio T: with the highest sharpe ratio.
- combine with
**borrowing**/**lending**

Each investor holds just two investments: **(T, Borrow || Lend)**

Capital Market Line Equation ⇒ how to calculate your return based on portfolio risk.

#### Company Diversification

- Companies don’t need to diversify.
- Investors should diversify on their own.

**Value additivity Property**

When evaluating a project, a company can value it in isolation. A project will only add the present value of itself to the company. The manager does not need to consider how the project meshes with the other projects of the company. This property extends to any number of projects.

The bottom line is this: It does not matter how many existing businesses a company has, or what these businesses are. The value of a new project depends on it’s own discounted cashflows.

## Chapter 8

INFO

**Beta** (market sensitivity) How much a stock price changes when the stock market goes up or down (by 1%).

**Formula Beta of a stock called i**

: covariance of stock and market : market variance

- Average beta of all stocks is 1.0

**Market Risk**